BUSINESS

BUSINESS

Friday, November 17, 2017






Fisker patents radical 'solid state battery' it claims can power a car for 500 miles and recharge in a MINUTE

  • The new battery uses a three-dimensional structure to increase surface area
  • Fisker says it could allow for 500 mile range, and charging in just one minute
  • The technology will be on display at the Consumer Electronics Show in Jan 





Electric car-maker Fisker has filed patents for flexible solid-state battery technology that could slash charging times and improve range.
In an announcement this week, the firm claimed the new battery could charge a car in just one minute, and allow for a range of over 500 miles.
The battery is expected to be ready for mass production by 2023, and will be displayed at the upcoming Consumer Electronics Show in January.

The new technology attempts to overcome the challenges of solid-state batteries using a three-dimensional structure. In an announcement this week, the firm claimed the new battery could charge a car in just one minute, and allow for a range of over 500 miles
The new technology attempts to overcome the challenges of solid-state batteries using a three-dimensional structure. In an announcement this week, the firm claimed the new battery could charge a car in just one minute, and allow for a range of over 500 miles

THE NEW SOLID STATE BATTERY

The new technology attempts to overcome the challenges of solid-state batteries using a three-dimensional structure.
This allows the electrodes to cover 25 times more surface area than flat thin-film designs.
According to Fisker, the structure will allow for more versatile voltage and form factors. 
They may be wound in cylindrical cells with higher voltage output, Fisker says.
This could allow for usage of current tooling and machinery for battery packs, along with thermal management and safety requirements, to reduce costs.According to Fisker, the radical new battery would deliver 2.5 times the energy density of typical lithium ion batteries.
Solid-state batteries are known to have a number of limitations, such as low power and low rate capability as a result of the layered electrode structure, and issues arising from cold temperatures, the firm explains.
But, the new technology attempts to overcome the challenges using a three-dimensional solid-state structure.
This allows the electrodes to cover 25 times more surface area than flat thin-film designs.
'This breakthrough marks the beginning of a new era in solid-state materials and manufacturing technologies,' said Dr. Fabio Albano, VP of battery systems at Fisker Inc.
'We are addressing all of the hurdles that solid-state batteries have encountered on the path to commercialization, such as performance in cold temperatures; the use of low cost and scalable manufacturing methods; and the ability to form bulk solid-state electrodes with significant thickness and high active material loadings.
'We are excited to build on this foundation and move the needle in energy storage.'
According to the firm, the battery could allow electric cars to drive more than 500 miles on a single charge.
Fisker plans to show off the solid-state battery and fast-charging technology at CES.
They'll also be launching the Fisker EMotion luxury electric vehicle, alongside a battery module equipped with advanced thermal management.Electric car-maker Fisker has filed patents for flexible solid-state battery technology that could slash charging times and improve range
Electric car-maker Fisker has filed patents for flexible solid-state battery technology that could slash charging times and improve range
Fisker patents 'solid state battery' that could last for 500 miles


 
 
 
 
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And, they'll have on display fast-charging technology that will allow for a 127-mile range in just nine minutes.
'Our aggressive vision for the entire EV and automotive industry, not just for Fisker Inc., revolves around making the impossible, possible – and this global solid-state battery breakthrough is reflective of our utmost seriousness in making that vision a reality,' said Henrik Fisker, chairman and CEO of Fisker Inc.
'It used to be about the efficiency of the gasoline engine. Now, it's all about who breaks the code and smashes the barriers to future battery technologies that will enable mass market electrification.
'Our scientists have been working tirelessly to deliver. We've done it, and this is just the beginning.' 
The battery is expected to be ready for mass production by 2023, and will be displayed at the upcoming Consumer Electronics Show in January
The battery is expected to be ready for mass production by 2023, and will be displayed at the upcoming Consumer Electronics Show in January



Wednesday, November 15, 2017








Iran & Saudi Arabia saber-rattling: Who would prevail in all-out war?

Tensions between Saudi Arabia and regional nemesis Iran are even higher than usual, with Riyadh targeting Tehran ally Hezbollah. If an actual military conflict between the two breaks out, who would have the best chance at prevailing?
The regional confrontation between the two nations separated geographically by the narrow Persian Gulf is deeply rooted in sectarian, political, and economic competition. Saudi Arabia and Iran follow the two rival sects of Islam with a long history of violence. They compete in the currently troubled energy market, with Tehran holding a grudge over the share it has lost due to sanctions imposed by Riyadh’s American patrons. They fight proxy battles, often violently, in places like Bahrain, Yemen, and Lebanon.
The recent flare-up comes as Saudi Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman, who is considered the de-facto ruler of the country by many observers, is solidifying power through so-called anti-corruption operations against his rivals and appealing for foreign support with promises to modernize Saudi Arabia’s brand of Islam and massive investment in futuristic projects.
The Saudi domestic struggle may stem from a series of foreign policy failures. Riyadh’s military intervention in Yemen, launched with much fanfare in 2015 to counter the Iran-aligned Houthi rebels, has become a quagmire. The crown prince was one of the key figures behind the decision, which has led to a major humanitarian disaster, but no military victory.
This year’s rift with Qatar and an economic blockade of the small Arab kingdom failed to produce swift concessions from Doha. If anything, it pushed Qatar closer to Iran, which offered logistical help, and Turkey, a country that wants to assert its own role in the region.
In Syria, Islamist militant groups favored by Saudi Arabia failed to topple the government in Damascus. Propped up by Russian air support and strengthened on the ground by Shiite militias and Iranian military instructors, the Syrian Army has essentially prevailed in the conflict.
Now Riyadh appears to be trying to stir problems for Iran in Lebanon, a nation divided along sectarian lines following a 15-year civil war that claimed 120,000 lives. One of the main developments of the war was the emergence of Hezbollah, a Shiite militant movement that is currently one of the most powerful forces in Lebanon, and part of a government formed under a power sharing agreement in 2016.
This month’s self-exile of Lebanese Sunni leader, Prime Minister Saad Hariri, announced from Riyadh, and Saudi Arabia’s indirect threat of a Qatar-style blockade, is stirring the old ghosts of the Lebanese Civil War. Hezbollah believes that Saudi Arabia is forcefully holding Hariri and that its actions amount to a declaration of war, while the Saudi government is reportedly seeking support from Israel in the confrontation with Iran.
With accusations flying, tensions running high, and anti-Iranian sentiment prevailing in the US government, the potential for serious clashes between Saudi Arabia and Iran is rising.

Crunching numbers

Predicting the outcome of a potential war based on statistics alone is pointless. For instance, Israel’s conflict with Hezbollah in 2006 ended in a draw, despite the IDF being far better funded and equipped. Still, the figures give an idea of what Tehran and Riyadh may bring into play in case of an escalation.
The website Global Firepower Index, which tracks the relative strength of national militaries, closely ranks the two nations. Saudi Arabia is estimated to be the world’s 24th-strongest nation, compared to Iran (21st).
Iran is three times more populous than Saudi Arabia and is able to field over 39 million soldiers compared to Saudi Arabia’s 14 million. Its total military personnel is estimated at 934,000, or 3.6 times larger than its rival.
In terms of military budget, the situation is the opposite. Tehran spends $6.3 billion on defense each year, while Riyadh’s budget is $56 billion. The gap may appear more impressive than it really is, until you take into account that Saudi Arabia gets most of its weapons from the United States at steep prices, while Iran prides itself on manufacturing whatever it can domestically. Its successes in areas like rocketry are apparent.
There is also the fact that different countries get different bang for their buck simply because goods and services have varying costs in each market. The website estimates Iran’s defense budget adjusted for purchasing power at $1.459 trillion, compared to Saudi Arabia’s at $1.731 trillion.
In terms of solid hardware, the Saudis beat Iran in the number of fighter jets and attack aircraft (177 and 245 vs. 137 and 137). Some of Iran’s planes are outdated American models left over from the times of the Shah, like the F-4 Phantom II, while others are Soviet and Chinese aircraft delivered from the late 1980s to early 1990s. The Royal Saudi Air Force is stacked with modern American, and some European, models. In case of war, Tehran hopes to shoot them down with surface-to-air missiles which it has been developing for years.
The naval strength of the two nations arguably favors Iran. The vast difference in the number of ships (398 vs. 55) is mostly due to Iran’s mosquito fleet of 230 patrol boats, but the Persians also boast something that the Arabs do not: submarines. Iran has 33 of them, ranging in displacement from small 10-ton Al-Sabehat 15 SDVs, all the way up to its three Russian Kilo-class attack subs delivered in the 1990s. If the US does not get involved (a big if), Iran may at the very least block all Saudi ships from sailing the Persian Gulf.
When it comes to large-scale ground battles, Iran has hardware numbers more or less on its side. It lags behind Saudi Arabia in terms of infantry fighting vehicles, but beats it in strength of tank units and vastly outnumbers in all kinds of artillery. But again, Iran’s ability to capitalize on this advantage will depend on whether it can defend the sky.

Death & destruction

© Youssef Boudlal



Of course, if Iran and Saudi Arabia do come to blows, it would take a heavy toll on both countries and the rest of the world. Unlike the sporadic launches from Yemen, Iran’s ballistic missiles are more than capable of overwhelming Saudi defenses. But they may not be precise enough to avoid hitting non-military targets. Saudi Arabia’s record of killing civilians in Yemen leaves little room for hope that it would be more careful in a fight against Iran.
A conflict involving two major crude oil producers would also send oil prices skyrocketing, especially since a big share of the trade relies on the route through the Persian Gulf. One can use the hike on the news of the Saudi royal purge as a kind of preview of what may happen.
And if the two nations do clash, other players are unlikely to just stand by. The usual proxy forces will be spun to action. A real mess with little gain can be predicted, which is why, hopefully, it will not happen.

Tuesday, November 14, 2017





Is the 'Big One' about to hit California? Fears rise after earthquake swarm of 10 mini-tremors rocks the San Andreas fault


  • A string of 10 tremors struck Monterey County, a rural area in California 
  • The largest, a 4.6-magnitude quake, was felt in San Francisco 90 miles away
  • Swarm dramatically increases the likelihood of a major quake in California
  • But one expert claims it was part of 'normal' seismic activity 



Fears of a huge quake have risen in California after a series of 10 'mini quakes' yesterday hit the San Andreas fault.
A string of 10 tremors struck Monterey County, a rural area in California, in what seismologists call a 'swarm' of earthquakes.
The largest of this swarm, a 4.6-magnitude quake, was felt in San Francisco more than 90 miles (145 km) away.
The swarm dramatically increases the likelihood of a major quake in California, at least temporarily, experts claim.
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California is on high alert after a series of 'mini quakes' yesterday raised fears a deadly 'megaquake' on the San Andreas fault could be on its way. The largest of the swarm, a 4.6-magnitude quake, was felt in San Francisco more than 90 miles (145 km) away
California is on high alert after a series of 'mini quakes' yesterday raised fears a deadly 'megaquake' on the San Andreas fault could be on its way. The largest of the swarm, a 4.6-magnitude quake, was felt in San Francisco more than 90 miles (145 km) away

WHAT IS THE BIG ONE? 

The 'Big One' is a hypothetical earthquake of magnitude 8 or greater that is expected to happen along the San Andreas fault.
Such a quake is expected to produce devastation to human civilisation within about 50-100 miles (80-160km) of the quake zone, especially in urban areas like Palm Springs, Los Angeles and San Francisco.
Contingency plans warn upward of 14,000 people could die in worst-case scenarios, with 30,000 injured, thousands left homeless and the region's economy setback for years, if not decades.
The swarm hit California's Monterey County on Monday at 11:31am ET (4:31pm GMT) about 13 miles (20 km) northeast of Gonzales, near Salinas.
The initial 4.6-magnitude quake was followed by nine smaller aftershocks.
The largest of these measured magnitude 2.8, Annemarie Baltay, a seismologist with the US Geological Survey in Menlo Park, told San Francisco news outlet SFGATE.
There were no reports of injuries or damage to buildings.
The quake happened at a depth of around 4 miles (6.5 km) on the infamous San Andreas Fault, close to a region where the Calaveras Fault branches off.
Experts have previously warned that any activity on the fault line is cause for concern.
'Any time there is significant seismic activity in the vicinity of the San Andreas fault, we seismologists get nervous,' Thomas Jordan, director of the Southern California Earthquake Centre, told the LA Times last year.
'Because we recognise that the probability of having a large earthquake goes up.'
Despite this, Ms Baltay said the recent quakes are part of normal seismic activity and that there was no suggestion the tremors were signs of larger activity to come.
The swarm dramatically increases the likelihood of a major quake in California, at least temporarily, experts claim. Pictured is a view of the San Andreas fault in the Carrizo Plain
The swarm dramatically increases the likelihood of a major quake in California, at least temporarily, experts claim. Pictured is a view of the San Andreas fault in the Carrizo Plain
The official USGS forecast for California earthquakes now predicts a 16 per cent chance of an M7.5 quake or larger on this section of the fault within the next 30 years. Shown here is the chance of an earthquake across California over the next 30 years
The official USGS forecast for California earthquakes now predicts a 16 per cent chance of an M7.5 quake or larger on this section of the fault within the next 30 years. Shown here is the chance of an earthquake across California over the next 30 years

EARTHQUAKE WARNINGS

Seismologist Lucy Jones from the US Geological Survey warned she is trying to make people accept the fact catastrophe is imminent and that they need to prepare themselves. 
Dr Jones said our decision to not accept it will only mean more people suffer as scientists warn the 'Big One' is now overdue to hit California.
Dr Jones, who is from the US Geological Survey said there are three key reasons why the peril is so frightening - it cannot be seen, it is uncertain and it seems unknowable.
This means people bury their heads in the sand and pretend it won't happen. 'This is really typical behaviour,' she said.
'It's as if someone put an oil can into the fault and lubricated it.'
Fears of California's 'Big One' were stirred in May when an expert warned that a destructive earthquake will hit the state 'imminently'.
Seismologist Dr Lucy Jones, from the US Geological Survey, warned in a dramatic speech that people need to act to protect themselves rather than ignoring the threat.
Dr Jones said people's decision not to accept it will only mean more suffer as scientists warn the 'Big One' is now overdue to hit California.
In a keynote speech to a meeting of the Japan Geoscience Union and American Geophysical Union, Dr Jones warned that the public are yet to accept the randomness of future earthquakes. 
People tend to focus on earthquakes happening in the next 30 years but they should be preparing now, she warned. The quake happened at a depth of around 4 miles (6.5km) on the infamous San Andreas Fault (pictured), close to a region where the Calaveras Fault branches off 
The quake happened at a depth of around 4 miles (6.5km) on the infamous San Andreas Fault (pictured), close to a region where the Calaveras Fault branches off 
Dr Jones said there are three key reasons why the peril is so frightening - it cannot be seen, it is uncertain and it seems unknowable.
This means people bury their heads in the sand and pretend it won't happen.  
'We find patterns even when they're not real,' Dr Jones said. 
She tweeted on 23 May; 'I'm not trying to terrify people. I'm trying to inspire action that will prevent our scenarios from coming true. It's in our power to change'.

CALIFORNIA AT RISK OF DEVASTATING MEGAQUAKE

A report from the U.S. Geological Survey has warned the risk of 'the big one' hitting California has increased dramatically.
Researchers analysed the latest data from the state's complex system of active geological faults, as well as new methods for translating these data into earthquake likelihoods.
The estimate for the likelihood that California will experience a magnitude 8 or larger earthquake in the next 30 years has increased from about 4.7% to about 7.0%, they say.
Scientists: Chances of mega-quake hitting California rising
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'We are fortunate that seismic activity in California has been relatively low over the past century,' said Tom Jordan, Director of the Southern California Earthquake Center and a co-author of the study.
'But we know that tectonic forces are continually tightening the springs of the San Andreas fault system, making big quakes inevitable.' The swarm hit California's Monterey County on Monday at 11:31am ET (4:31pm GMT) about 13 miles (20 km) northeast of Gonzales, near Salinas
The swarm hit California's Monterey County on Monday at 11:31am ET (4:31pm GMT) about 13 miles (20 km) northeast of Gonzales, near Salinas
Her team published a scenario of a 7.8 earthquake on the San Andreas fault that could kill many people and devastate 15,000 buildings. 
In 2011 a magnitude nine earthquake hit the east coast of Japan, killing around 20,000 people.
'The city leaders ignored protocol that said to move to higher ground and conducted their emergency meeting in the city hall', said Dr Jones.
'When the tsunami poured over the sea wall, they lost over 1,000 people, including most of their city government'. 

PLANS FOR 'THE BIG ONE' 

Federal, state and military officials have been working together to draft plans to be followed when the 'Big One' happens.
These contingency plans reflect deep anxiety about the potential gravity of the looming disaster: upward of 14,000 people dead in the worst-case scenarios, 30,000 injured, thousands left homeless and the region's economy setback for years, if not decades.
As a response, what planners envision is a deployment of civilian and military personnel and equipment that would eclipse the response to any natural disaster that has occurred so far in the US.
This haunting photograph shows people walking through rubble in San Francisco on 18 April 1906. Many people are worried that the city and LA, for example, would look like this again due to a massive quake
This haunting photograph shows people walking through rubble in San Francisco on 18 April 1906. Many people are worried that the city and LA, for example, would look like this again due to a massive quake
There would be waves of cargo planes, helicopters and ships, as well as tens of thousands of soldiers, emergency officials, mortuary teams, police officers, firefighters, engineers, medical personnel and other specialists.
'The response will be orders of magnitude larger than Hurricane Katrina or Super Storm Sandy,' said Lt. Col. Clayton Braun of the Washington State Army National Guard.

19th-century photographs of the young California city show landscape which was razed by devastating 1906 quake and fire



  • 247 black and white stereoscopic photo cards include panoramas of the bay before the Golden Gate Bridge 
  • The pictures were taken 50 years before the 1906 earthquake, when 3,000 people were killed in the disaster
  • Alcatraz prison, which was built in 1910, is also missing in the album going for auction at Bonhams for $7,000 


Fascinating photos showing San Francisco in the 1860s before it was flattened by a massive earthquake have been unearthed after 150 years.
The images show the distinctive street scenes of the Californian city 50 years before 80 per cent of it was wiped out by the 1906 earthquake which killed 3,000 of its citizens.
The 247 black and white photos include numerous panoramas of the bay. Conspicuous by its absence is the iconic Golden Gate Bridge which wasn't built until the 1930s.
A collection of 247 black and white photographs show a snapshot of San Francisco in the 1860s before it was flattened by the 1906 earthquake. The pictures are stereoscopic cards, which are meant to be viewed through special glasses to give the image a 3D effect. The modern equivalent of the stereoscope is the View-Master
Pictured, a view from Telegraph hill on to the Golden Gate Bridge, 150 years after the original picture was taken
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A collection of 247 black and white photographs show a snapshot of San Francisco in the 1860s before it was flattened by the 1906 earthquake. The pictures are stereoscopic cards, which are meant to be viewed through special glasses to give the image a 3D effect. Pictured, a view from Telegraph hill on to where the Golden Gate Bridge would be built 70 years later. The famous structure was opened in 1937. Pictured right, the view now
Pictured, a view from Telegraph Hill of Alcatraz Island, where the notorious prison was built 50 years on. At the time the photograph was taken, the island could have been used as a military prison for Civil War PoWs
San Francisco was founded on June 29, 1776 by colonists from Spain. Pictured, Alcatraz Island now
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Pictured, a view from Telegraph Hill of Alcatraz Island, where the notorious prison was built in 1910. At the time the original photograph was taken, the island could have been used as a military prison for Civil War PoWs. San Francisco was founded on June 29, 1776 by colonists from Spain. Pictured now, the view on to Alcatraz now
The impressive collection of photographs will go on sale at Bonhams on April 25
Pictured, Montgomery Street, the financial center of San Francisco. The area is now known as the 'Wall Street of the West'
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The impressive collection of photographs will go on sale at Bonhams on April 25. Pictured, Montgomery Street, the financial center of San Francisco. The area is now known as the 'Wall Street of the West' (right). In the 1906 earthquake, the important road was decimated by the natural disaster. At the end of the street, the lavish Palace Hotel had to be completely rebuilt after it was destroyed by a fire in the aftermath of the shock
Mission Dolores is the oldest surviving structure in San Francisco and was built in 1776. Also known as Mission San Francisco de Asis, the church was named after Saint Francis of Assisi
He is also thought to be the namesake of the Californian city. The mission was damaged by the 1906 earthquake but survived intact. Pictured, the mission now
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Mission Dolores is the oldest surviving structure in San Francisco and was built in 1776. Also known as Mission San Francisco de Asis, the church was named after Saint Francis of Assisi. He is also the namesake of the Californian city. The mission was badly damaged by the 1906 earthquake but survived intact. Pictured right, the church now
In the 1906 earthquake, three quarters of the city was flattened and 3,000 people were killed. Within a decade, San Francsico was completely rebuilt on a grid structure
The city is universally known for its treacherously steep hills and spectacular scenery. Pictured, the view from Russian Hill now
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In the 1906 earthquake, three quarters of the city was flattened and 3,000 people were killed. Within a decade, San Francsico was completely rebuilt on a grid structure. The city is universally known for its treacherously steep hills and spectacular scenery. Pictured then and now, a panorama from Russian Hill, looking out on to the bay
Pictured a panorama from Russian Hill, which was named after the Gold Rush era when settlers found a small Russian cemetery on top of the hill
In the 1906 earthquake, around 250,000 people were made homeless by the earthquake. They had to sleep in tents in Presidio, a park at the southern tip of what would be the Golden Gate Bridge. Pictured, the view from Telegraph Hill now
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Pictured a panorama from Russian Hill, which was named after the Gold Rush era when settlers found a small Russian cemetery on top of the hill. In the 1906 earthquake, around 250,000 people were made homeless by the earthquake. They had to sleep in tents in Presidio, a park at the southern tip of what would be the Golden Gate Bridge. Pictured right, the view from Russian Hill now
Photographs taken by Carleton E. Watkins show the Golden Gate Straight, Alcatraz Island, Russian Hill, the Waterfront and Woodward's Gardens. The collection are going up for auction at Bonhams, valued at $7,000. Pictured the Grand Hotel, San Francisco, which does not exist today
Photographs taken by Carleton E. Watkins show the Golden Gate Straight, Alcatraz Island, Russian Hill, the Waterfront and Woodward's Gardens. The collection are going up for auction at Bonhams, valued at $7,000. Pictured the Grand Hotel, San Francisco, which does not exist today Also missing in the photos is the notorious Alcatraz prison was developed on a rocky island in the bay in 1910.
The pictures are stereoscopic cards, which are meant to be viewed through special glasses to give the image a 3D effect. 
The city which is universally known for its treacherously steep hills and spectacular scenery was captured in all its glory by American photographer Carleton E. Watkins.

What happened in the 1906 San Francisco earthquake? 

On April 18, 1906, San Francisco was hit by an earthquake measuring 7.8 on the Richter scale. It is remembered as one of the greatest natural disasters in American history.  
The earthquake, which started at 5.13am, killed more than 3,000 people at a time when the city had a population of 400,000. 
28,000 buildings were also destroyed in the disaster, effectively flattening the city. After the earthquake, San Francisco had to be completely rebuilt.
Even though the tremors of the earthquake only lasted for a few minutes, the shock ignited fires that burned for several days after. 
The risk was so great that people forced out of their homes had to cook in the street to make sure there were no more fires. 
Around 250,000 people were made homeless by the earthquake, who had to sleep in tents in Presidio of San Francisco, a park and former Army base. 
The damage was valued at around $500million at the time, the equivalent of around $10.5billion now. 
The rebuilding of the city, which took almost a decade, was completed in 1915. 
San Francisco was redesigned on a grid structure, which remains to this day. His pictures show the Golden Gate Sraight between San Francisco Bay and the Pacific Ocean, Alcatraz Island, Russian Hill, the Waterfront and Woodward's Gardens.
There is a photo of the regal Merchants Exchange building which housed city traders and businessmen, as well as the splendid view from the grounds of Governor Stanford who was Governor of California between 1861 and 1863.
Also included in the album are several photos of Russian Hill whose name goes back to the Gold Rush era when settlers discovered a small Russian cemetery at the top of the hill.
There is an image of several trams being pulled by horses in Montgomery Street, of a glass building in Woodward's Gardens and of a church in Mission Street.
The photo album is tipped to sell for $7,000.
Judith Eurich, director of photographs at auctioneers Bonhams New York, said: 'I think what stands out about this collection is the fact that it is so comprehensive.
'You've got so many views of iconic places in San Francisco during the 1860s and you can see where the city is beginning to expand tremendously and become a real modern city.
'It has been a private collection which has come down a family by descent.
'The collector is just someone who is passionate about the history of San Francisco so that person has accumulated all these stereo views we will be offering.
'The photos have probably been in the family since the 1950s so it's a lifelong passion.'
San Francisco was founded on June 29, 1776 by colonists from Spain.
The California Gold Rush of 1849 brought rapid growth as treasure seekers flocked to the area in search of a fortune. Silver discoveries further drove a surge in the population.
With hordes of people streaming through the city, lawlessness was common and parts of the city gained notoriety as a haven for criminals, prostitution and gambling.
Three-quarters of San Francisco was destroyed by the 1906 earthquake and fire, but the city was quickly rebuilt.
After the Second World War, San Francisco became the center of the 'hippy' counterculture and liberal activism in the United States.
The auction takes place on April 25.  
Pictured, the view from the grounds of Governor Stanford. Leland Stanford served as governor for two years. From 1885 to 1893 he was the senator for California. An elaborate church stretches out at the front of the photograph. After the Gold Rush  of 1849, the city gained notoriety for being a haven for lawlessness, prostitution and gambling
Pictured, the view from the grounds of Governor Stanford. Leland Stanford served as governor for two years. From 1885 to 1893 he was the senator for California. An elaborate church stretches out at the front of the photograph. After the Gold Rush  of 1849, the city gained notoriety for being a haven for lawlessness, prostitution and gambling
After the Second World War, San Francisco became the centre of the 'hippy' counterculture and liberal activism in the United States. California is particularly prone to earthquakes as the state lies along the San Andreas faultline, where two tectonic plates meet. Pictured, a view from the grounds of Governor Stanford. 
After the Second World War, San Francisco became the centre of the 'hippy' counterculture and liberal activism in the United States. California is particularly prone to earthquakes as the state lies along the San Andreas faultline, where two tectonic plates meet. Pictured, a view from the grounds of Governor Stanford. 
Pictured, at Woodward's gardens, which was in use from 1866 to 1891. The amusement park was set up in the Mission District of the city. Owner Robert B Woodward made his fortune during the Gold Rush and built the site, which included an aquarium, zoo, and art gallery, on his estate. In 1889, the amusement park also included Monarch, the grizzly bear who would later be immortalized on the flag of California
Pictured, at Woodward's gardens, which was in use from 1866 to 1891. The amusement park was set up in the Mission District of the city. Owner Robert B Woodward made his fortune during the Gold Rush and built the site, which included an aquarium, zoo, and art gallery, on his estate. In 1889, the amusement park also included Monarch, the grizzly bear who would later be immortalized on the flag of California
Pictured, the Merchant's Exchange, which boasted a library and offices for businessmen. A second building was completed in 1904 at a site three miles away. The newer building was badly damaged in the 1906 earthquake but managed to stay intact. The damage inflicted by the earthquake across the city was valued at around $500million at the time, the equivalent of around $10.5billion now.
Pictured, the Merchant's Exchange, which boasted a library and offices for businessmen. A second building was completed in 1904 at a site three miles away. The newer building was badly damaged in the 1906 earthquake but managed to stay intact. The damage inflicted by the earthquake across the city was valued at around $500million at the time, the equivalent of around $10.5billion now.
Pictured, San Francisco after the 1906 earthquake. 4,000 troops were drafted into the city after the earthquake to help with the rescue mission. When the public soon started looting shops and rioting, police were able to shoot anyone caught looting, to act as a deterrent 
Pictured, San Francisco after the 1906 earthquake. 4,000 troops were drafted into the city after the earthquake to help with the rescue mission. When the public soon started looting shops and rioting, police were able to shoot anyone caught looting, to act as a deterrent 






That summer was ripe for change. It was only two years after the Watts riots in Los Angeles, 3 1/2 years after the Kennedy assassination, and more and more American troops were being sent to fight in the Vietnam War. Against the backdrop of an ever widening chasm between the nation's youth and their parents that would eventually be dubbed "the generation gap," young people all over the country headed toward San Francisco.
File:SF Chinatown CA.jpg

1966 Fox Plaza, it stands on the site of the former Fox Theatre, demolished in 1963. I remember  walking thru Van Ness and Market St. the strong winds of San Francisco magnified like a wind tunnel. It Acts like a sail, that many times my hat blew away. My recollection about this building were all positive, all the five years of my stay in Highway design and Urban Planning. The first twelve floors contain office space. Unlike many buildings, Fox Plaza has a 13th floor actually labeled "13", although this floor is the service floor and is not rented out. The 14th floor contains a gymnasium and laundry facilities as well as apartments, while floors 15 through 29 are exclusively rental apartments. The main attraction during coffee break was the fashion show atmosphere of beautiful young ladies well chosen by private companies at Fox Plaza to the delight of bachelors like us.
San Francisco was undeniably one of the most important epicenters of change. The city's history with the Renaissance poets, the Beats, and a vibrant folk scene left it in a good position to serve as a cultural engine, and the ignition of the San Francisco Sound came from dozens of sources, from Bob Dylan, Paul Butterfield, and the British Invasion to UC-Berkeley's 1964 Free Speech Movement, the evolution of freeform FM radio, and the proliferation of hallucinogenic drugs. By 1967, San Francisco was the most psychedelic city in America, if not the world
  
A few customers stand beneath the doomed marquee on the night of February 10, 1963. The building was demolished and in its place the "Fox Plaza" was constructed a combination office and apartment building. Fox Plaza 5th floor was the site of my office in Urban Planning, Dept. of Transportation, State of California in the late 60's.  The last film's were shown on February 15, 1963. The following night an event called "Farewell to the Fox" tookplace. After a week or so of selling off artifacts from the theater the wreaking ball took over
The 1906 Great Earthquake of San Francisco in colour: never-before-seen photos uncovered a century later in the Smithsonian

 

The snaps were unearthed in the Smithsonian National Museum of American History of what is considered the worst natural disaster in US history
The snaps were unearthed in the Smithsonian National Museum of American History of what is considered the worst natural disaster in US history .

Thought to be the first colour photos from the devastating earthquake were taken by pioneer photographer Frederick Eugene Ives

Thought to be the first colour photos from the devastating earthquake were taken by pioneer photographer Frederick Eugene Ives

Skyline: These images look South East from the Hotel Majestic roof, towards what appears to be the dome of City Hall on the horizon (centre right)
The first colour images of what is considered the worst natural disaster in U.S. history have emerged, showing in beautiful and horrific detail the deadly force of the Great San Francisco Earthquake of 1906.
The subsequent fire that engulfed the city left more than 3,000 dead and thousands more injured. Images of the devastation left behind were captured by pioneering photographer Frederick Eugene Ives.
The never before seen snaps of the city's downtown area were taken from the roof of the Hotel Majestic, where Ives stayed on an October 1906 visit, and were unearthed by a volunteer at the Smithsonian National Museum of American History.
Skyline: These images look South East from the Hotel Majestic roof, towards what appears to be the dome of City Hall on the horizon (centre right)
His shots show the devastation in the North East of the city, near San Francisco Bay. They were stowed amid other items donated by Ives' son, Herbert, and discovered in 2009 by volunteer Anthony Brooks while he was cataloguing the collection.  
Hand-colored photographs of the quake's destruction have surfaced before, but Ives' work is probably the only true color documentary evidence, Shannon Perich, associate curator of the Smithsonian's photography history collection believes.



American Cities  
Previous images: The subsequent fires tore through the city leaving nearly two-thirds of the population homeless
The pictures are street-level shots of San Francisco's shattered downtown and rooftop views overlooking miles of ruins.
They depict buildings damaged by fire and broken by the shaking ground. Some of the buildings still exist.
The process he used to produce colour images, creating separate slides for each primary colour in the light spectrum, required a long exposure and therefore was not conducive to capturing people and objects in motion.
Ives is well-known for inventing the half-tone reproduction process still used to print photographs in newspapers.
The Great Earthquake measured 7.9 on the Richter Scale as was felt as far away as Orgeon, Los Angeles and Nevada.
Around 227,000 and 300,000 people were left homeless out of a population of about 410,000 and lead to refugee camps set up along the coast, which were still operational two years after the quake.
The cost of the damage from the earthquake was estimated at the time to be around $400million, which is around $9.5 billion in today’s money.
She said Ives was one of only a few photographers experimenting with colour photography in the early 20th century and that his San Francisco images were meant to be viewed through a 3D device he invented but which never became a commercial success.
Perich told the San Francisco Chronicle: ‘Can you imagine how shocking these were?’
The Hotel Majestic, Ives base for these photographs, was built in 1902 - four years before the earthquake struck - and still stands on Sutter Street today. It claims to be 'San Francisco's oldest continuously operating hotel'.
The history section of its website, relating to the time of the disaster, states: 'The terrible fires that ravaged the city were halted at Van Ness Avenue, two blocks from The Majestic.'










San Francisco hill

San Francisco view today from the Coit tower.



Downtown San Francisco Bay View from Kite Hill in San Francisco



This map of San Francisco shows the hotel where Ives stayed and from its roof he pointed his camera East to Union Square and South to City Hall to photograph the destruction in colourThis map of San Francisco shows the hotel where Ives stayed and from its roof he pointed his camera East to Union Square and South to City Hall to photograph the destruction in color .

The quake caused around $9billion-worth of damage in today's money, and the extent of it can be seen in this shot of Union Square with the Victory statue in the distance
The quake caused around $9billion-worth of damage in today's money, and the extent of it can be seen in this shot of Union Square, with the Victory statue in the distance
Vibrant: Downtown San Francisco before the 1906 earthquake
Vibrant: Downtown San Francisco before the  1906 earthquake




San Francisco Earthquake 1906
Crumbling buildings line a street and smoke rises in the background after the San Francisco earthquake




 


 

San Francisco City Hall, 1906

The 1906 earthquake and fire in San Francisco largely gutted City Hall. Source: U.S. Geological Survey




Golden Gate Park, San Francisco