WORLD EMPLOYMENT TRENDS NOW AND THEN
The Gordon Gecko career trajectory is a thing of the past – this generation would rather work at Facebook and Google.
A new study by an employment data firm shows that young professionals no longer dream of raising capital for investment banks. They have their eyes on start-ups, websites, and secure government gigs.
One in five workers polled picked Google as their dream place of employment, while Apple, Walt Disney, and Amazon also ranked in the top ten.
Best of the best: For the second year running, one in five young professionals picked Google as the most desirable place to work
Universum polled nearly 6,700 college-educated working professionals under the age of 40. They had one to eight years of work experience, and were told to pick the five employers they’d most like to work for from a list of 200.
Google topped the list for the second year running.
Universum’s director of Americas Chris Cordery told the Wall Street Journal that Google remains an immensely appealing place to work in part because of the perks and work environment.
He says candidates ‘look at Google as compensating employees well and offering challenging work but at the same time it will be a fun and strong culture.’
The Big Apple: Apple ranked second most desirable company to work for
Like: Respondents said working for Mark Zuckerberg's massive social media site would be great
Stately affair: Working for the U.S. Department of State under Secretary of State Hilary Clinton ranked fourth
Though the survey didn’t look into why respondents chose the companies they did, Mr Cordery has a theory.
He thinks that after the financial crisis, young professionals have a deep distrust of big banks. ‘These organizations may not be as attractive as they once were,’ he told the Journal.
Bank of America saw the steepest drop since last year, falling 29 spots to number 77.
The study also found 61 per cent of those surveyed have plans to leave their job in the next two years.
The happiest place on Earth: The Walt Disney Company is a magical place to work. It ranked fifth
‘They’ve hung onto jobs probably longer than they would have liked,’ Mr Cordery said. And no wonder –steep competition and a stubbornly feeble make the job market a daunting prospect.
TEN MOST DESIRABLE EMPLOYERS
1 - Google
2 - Apple
3 - Facebook
4 - U.S. Department of State
5 - Walt Disney
6 - Amazon
7 - FBI
8 - Microsoft
9 - Sony
10 - Central Intelligence Agency
Though college graduates over 25 have fared slightly better in unemployment rates – 4.4 per cent compared to the nine per cent national average – they still worry about job security.
Around 40 per cent of respondents said job security is important, especially in a job market that sees vicious layoffs.
That’s why the Central Intelligence Agency, the State Department, and Federal Bureau of Investigations ranked in the top ten positions.
‘Stability is still very much a concern and people equate government jobs with stability,’ Mr Cordery said.
The lowest on the list included McDonald's, computer company Hewlett-Packard, the United States Postal Service, CitiGroup, and Ford Motor Company.
Your potential, our passion: Microsoft was eighth most popular
Kindling enthusiasm: Amazon, along with other websites, proved a worthy place to work for respondents
Didn't make the cut: Sony ranked 11th out of 200 well-known employers
But it’s no coincidence that the top ten companies selected all have strong branding and corporate culture. Google, Apple, and Facebook all provide meals to their employees.
Facebook also offers leather repair, photo developing, and laundry services.
But Google has the cushiest benefits by far - the company offers a dry cleaning service, running trails, car washes, and subsidised massages, as well as a benefits package that includes unlimited sick days, personalised financial advice, and inter-office scooters.
Job security: 40 per cent of those surveyed said it was important to know the company would provide a secure work environment
Coveted: High-profile government organizations like the Federal Bureau of Investigations were attractive to the young workforce
Reuters recently assigned a number of photographers to capture images of a struggling generation. The result is this series of portraits of graduates from around the world who have been unable to find work in their degree fields and have ended up in poorly paid service industry jobs. Although their current positions may be disappointing, the subjects in these photos may count themselves lucky to have any job at all -- the International Labor Organization estimates the number of people aged 15 to 24 without a job at almost 75 million. From a cook in Athens with a degree in civil engineering to a waiter in Algiers with a masters in corporate finance, these young people have spent years studying hard to compete in the 21st century, only to discover that even the most desirable qualifications mean little in a distressed global economy.
US data on economic growth, together with the latest employment figures, show that the economic breakdown, which began nearly five years ago with the collapse of the investment bank Lehman Brothers, is continuing to deepen.
The US economy grew at an annualized rate of just 1.7 percent in the second quarter of 2013, while only 162,000 were added in July, the worst result in four months. The number of jobs created was well below that needed to expand employment, and most of these were low-wage and part-time positions. In the past four months, the growth of part-time positions has outnumbered full-time jobs by a ratio of more than four to one.
While the second quarter gross domestic product (GDP) result was regarded as “lackluster” and was accompanied by a downward revision of first quarter numbers, it was generally regarded as “better than expected,” amid predictions that it could have been as low as 1.0 percent. There were signs as well that even the dismal second quarter result will not be sustained. The Wall Street Journal noted that “more than 24 percent of the quarter’s growth came from an increase in inventories—a build-up that’s unlikely to be repeated and could even be erased in subsequent data revisions.”
Over the past three quarters the US economy has grown at an annualized rate of only 0.96 percent, exposing the claims of the Obama administration that a “recovery” is underway. The fact that the US economy is able to achieve a growth rate just one sixth of the post-World War II average indicates that deep structural changes have taken place within the American economy and anything approaching previous growth rates will not be seen again.
Some of these changes were highlighted in an analysis published by theFinancial Times on July 24. Headlined “Corporate Investment: A Mysterious Divergence,” the article noted that there was an increasing disconnect between the level of profits and the rate of investment. This is decisive because, in the final analysis, investment—the purchase of new plant and equipment and the hiring of new workers to increase production—is the key driver of the expansion of the capitalist economy.
The article noted that up until the late 1980s, profits and net investment had tracked each other, both recording about 9 percent of GDP. But after that time, the figures began to diverge, with the gap widening significantly after 2009.
While pre-tax corporate profits are at record highs, amounting to 12 percent of GDP, net investment is barely 4 percent of output. This is despite the fact that the cost of equity capital is low, as are interest rates. Increased profits are not being used to expand production, as took place in the past, but are increasingly being used to finance stock buybacks, so as to increase the rate of return on shareholders’ capital.
Under what were once “normal” conditions, increased profits would lead to greater investment, higher production and an increase in wages, leading to an expanding market. Today, however, wages are falling as a share of GDP.
This result indicates that rising profits are no longer being produced by an expansion of the market, as they were in the past, but are increasingly the result of cost-cutting, as firms raise their bottom line by grabbing an increased share of a stagnant or contracting market from their rivals. In other words, the once “normal” process of capitalist accumulation—increasing investment leading to an expanding market, higher profits and further investment—has completely broken down.
Another major factor is the continuing impact of the financial crisis and the so-called “great recession,” which has delivered the greatest shock to the US economy since the Great Depression of the 1930s.
A recent study by staff at the Dallas Federal Reserve estimated that the financial crisis has cost the US as much as $14 trillion, equivalent to one year’s output by the entire economy. The results were consistent with other studies that have found the impact on the US economy of the financial implosion to range anywhere from $13 trillion to as much as $22 trillion.
The authors of the Dallas report concluded that if output grows at the “tepid rate” of 2 to 3 percent over the next decade—optimistic assumptions given the latest figures—the cost to the US economy could amount to as much as 165 percent of annual output. “Further,” they continued, “the spillover to the global economy is likely to be on the same scale as or even greater than the lost US output.”
The impact of the contraction of the US economy is already showing up in global growth figures. In 2007, China’s economy expanded by 14.2 percent, India’s 10.1 percent, Russia’s by 8.5 percent and Brazil’s by 6.1 percent. This year, according to somewhat optimistic International Monetary Fund predictions, the Chinese economy will expand by 7.8 percent—other forecasts say it may be closer to 7 percent—India’s by 5.6 percent and Russia’s and Brazil’s by just 2.5 percent.
Claims made in the wake of the financial crisis that the so-called BRIC (Brazil, Russia, India and China) economies would be able to “decouple” from the major capitalist economies and provide a new base of expansion for the global economy as a whole have been shattered.
The data for the US and the so-called “emerging markets” bring into sharper focus the real significance of the stock market boom. Markets hit new record highs last week on the basis that slow growth would likely mean a continuation of the policy of the US Federal Reserve of pumping cheap money into the financial system through its “quantitative easing” program—enabling massive financial speculation.
The US stock market boom in the midst of a gathering global downturn is not a sign of economic health. Rather, it is a fever chart of the increasing instability of the global financial system.
The US is not the only potential source of the next crisis. The credit tightening in China, as government and financial authorities attempt to deflate the credit bubble that developed in response to stimulatory measures initiated after the 2008-2009 financial crash, could also have a global impact.
Last week, the Australian Treasury warned that it was “still unclear” as to whether Chinese authorities had done enough to protect the country’s financial system. It pointed out that in taking steps to address the risks, “there is a danger that a policy misstep could lead to more extensive, unintended market disruptions.”
In 1997, the collapse of the Thai currency set in motion the so-called Asian financial crisis, which led to an economic contraction in that region equivalent to the impact of the Great Depression of the 1930s in the major capitalist economies.
Far from signaling a “recovery,” the US output and jobs figures, coupled with growing financial instability, indicate that the global capitalist breakdown has entered a new phase, which will be accompanied by deepening attacks on jobs, wages and social conditions, for which the international working class must now prepare through the development of an independent socialist program.
From modest beginnings, there are now 20,000 interns descending on Washington each summer, 6,000 of them working unpaid for Congress – dwarfing the 450 interns currently attached to the UK Parliament.
An estimated 75 per cent of US university undergraduates now do at least one internship, up from a small fraction in the Eighties.
They fetch coffee in a thousand newsrooms, Congressional offices and Hollywood studios, but they also deliver aid in Afghanistan, write newsletters for churches, sell lipstick, work for the military and pick up rubbish.
They are part-time college students, recent graduates, thirtysomethings changing careers, and – increasingly – just about any white-collar hopeful who can be hired on a temporary basis, for cheap or for free.
American firms with London offices, particularly in finance, were probably some of the earliest adopters in Britain in the Nineties.
Most of these positions were still of the paid-for variety. But not for long.
Just as internships started to become entrenched in the UK, the whole concept changed radically.
Particularly in ‘glamour’ industries’ such as media, entertainment and fashion, but increasingly everywhere else, high ideals about training the next generation degenerated into a free-for-all of favouritism and exploitation.
For businesses, it’s all about the numbers. A California newspaper attempted to fire its entire editorial staff and replace them with unpaid interns.
Disney World runs on some 8,000 minimum-wage student interns. Foxconn, the world’s largest electronics maker, pumps out iPods and Kindles with more than 100,000 Chinese interns on its assembly lines.
Besides canny employers, other causes of this phenomenon include a hyper-competitive job market, Government inaction and a frightening new consensus about work, especially among young people and their parents.
Whatever happened to the principle of a fair day’s pay for a hard day’s work?
Some of the results are already obvious but the worst is yet to come.
Many internships, especially the small but influential sliver of glamorous ones, are the preserve of the wealthy.
They provide the already privileged with a major head start and serious professional and financial dividends over time.
Internships play a role in making sure the rich stay rich or get richer, while the poor get poorer – barred from the world of white-collar work, where high salaries are increasingly concentrated in today’s economy.
For the well-heeled looking to guarantee their offspring’s future prosperity, internships are a powerful investment vehicle, an instrument of self-preservation in the same category as private tutoring, exclusive schools and trust funds.
Meanwhile, less privileged families stretch their finances thinly so their children can afford the most thankless unpaid positions, which are less likely to lead to real work, while the forgotten majority cannot afford to play the game at all.
Some professions are already off limits to working-class kids.
In fact, internships are skewing the fields that matter most to broader society: most of those who will shape politics, culture, business and the voluntary sector in the coming years will be former interns who had the family money and connections – and in some cases the sheer persistence – to break in.
If this has always been true to some extent, internships are making matters worse, working against efforts to democratise higher education and diversify the workplace.
In the UK, as in America, between a third and half of all internships pay nothing, and positions are concentrated in the most expensive cities.
And if personal connections grease the wheels of the job market, they are the motor powering the opaque trade in internships. Internships are informal and off the radar, a zone where anything goes.
As one boss said to me: ‘All I need to do is find a desk, a computer and a phone and that person is on board. I don’t need to make the case that I need to put another salary in my profit and loss statement.’
Similarly, there are no issues about firing, pensions, overtime, holidays or severance pay.
So what about those ‘fortunate’ enough to land the internship of their dreams?
A lucky few get paid a decent wage and have great experiences, replete with opportunities for mentoring and advancement.
But many more will be exploited without a second thought, even as they slip deeper into debt and despair.
Like the intern for a theatre company who had to carry urine samples to her boss’s doctor.
Or the supervisor who directed an intern to load his own car with leaking bags of rubbish and drive around until he found a bin.
At the far end of absurd are two girls in the Netherlands, aged 14 and 15, who were required by their school to take ‘a social internship’ and tried to intern as prostitutes in the local red-light district.
Which only serves to remind us of the services Bill Clinton demanded of Monica Lewinsky, the most famous intern of all.
Expect things to get much worse.
The Tories’ auction of internships to wealthy donors for their children – reported last week in this newspaper – is only the tip of the iceberg.
If the UK continues to follow America’s lead, you can look forward to dozens of ‘internship companies’ selling positions (a California firm called Dream Careers offers its American clients summer internships in London for £6,500 a pop), lots more auctions and the further erosion of pay and working conditions.
Interns will keep replacing full-time workers but will rarely get hired on a regular basis themselves.
Instead of work experience lasting a few weeks, we’ll see more internships dragging on for months, even years, and the rise of ‘serial interns’.
The average American household is now earning LESS income than it did at the end of the Great Recession
The average household is earning less than when the Great Recession ended four years ago and some Americans are affected even more than others. U.S. median household income, once adjusted for inflation, has fallen 4.4 percent since the official end of the recession, according to Census Bureau statistics. Specific groups such as blacks, the young, and the upper-middle-aged have experienced even larger than average drops in income.
Money woes: The Great Recession may be over, but a new study says average American household income has dropped since the end of the recession. Younger people and those aged between 55 and 64 were hit worse than other age groups. In the older group, income dropped from $62,842 to $58,432 on average.
In only one group did median income go up. Americans aged 65 to 74 saw their average income go from $40,885 to $42,984. In addition to age and marital status, race was a factor in household income drops. Worst off were African American households which, according to the study, saw a larger income drop since the end of recession than other groups. Interestingly, increase in college enrollment during the recovery caused income to drop across all education levels. Somewhat less surprisingly, households headed by unemployed persons were the hardest hit of all with a 21 percent decrease in average income.
Crunched: A graph from the authors of the study, Sentier Research, shows unemployment in black and houshold income in red
POCKET CHANGE: HOW DIFFERENT AMERICAN HOUSEHOLDS HAVE BECOME EVEN WORSE OFF SINCE THE RECESSION
The Great Recession hit most American households where it hurts: in their pockets. Some, however, were affected more than others. Though median income has risen since plummeting after 2008 and hitting a low in summer 2011, average American household income is still 6% below pre-recession levels. And for most American households, income is down from levels seen at the end of the Great Recession.
Factored out: Younger households, minority households, and households in the South and West have seen sharper declines in income since the end of the recession four years ago
In fact, according to a report from Sentier Research, every group is worse off to some degree except for those aged 65 to 74. The median, or midpoint, income in June 2013 was $52,098. That's down from $54,478 in June 2009, when the recession ended. And it's below the $55,480 that the median household took in when the recession began in December 2007. The study found that both family households and single Americans were affected. The average income for single people fell from $33,815 to $31,166. Men living alone were hit worse than women living alone with a drop of 9.1 and 6.5 percent drops respectively. Married couples were affected less so. Average income for them fell by 2.6 percent.
Five years after the beginning of the recession, 20% of Americans struggled LAST MONTH to buy food
The staggering number of Americans unable to buy food is on the rise despite bold proclamations the recession is over amid improving unemployment numbers now below eight percent.
With many Americans not seeing raises in a difficult economic climate, the average hourly pay for non-governmental, non-supervisory workers has dropped from $8.85 in June 2009 to only $8.77 in July 2013, according to a Wall Street Journal report quoted by Gallup.
Dear Sir or Madam, will you read my book?
It took me years to write, will you take a look?
It's based on a novel by a man named Lear
And I need a job, so I want to be a paperback writer,
Ironic: Bourke-White's contentious shot taken at a Bread Line during the Louisville flood, Kentucky 1937, paints the picture that the American Dream was perhaps somewhat limited to who could achieve it (Original picture by Margaret Bourke-White, 1937)
Pictured in the background poster is an all-white, presumably middle class American family, who are perhaps enjoying the fruits of the American Dream.
Yet those queuing for bread after the Louisville floods could not be further from that, and certainly not feeling the 'World's Highest Standard of Living'.
Arguably Bourke-White's greatest ever picture taken, it tells of the social injustices facing black Americans at that time, and the irony of the shot is that the car driven by the white family appears as though it is going to plow through the dozen or so assembled black people.
Dullaway's addition of colour here helps the grim, sad and anguished faces of the starving queue stand out a lot more, as well as excellently contrasting to the smiling, happy-go-lucky atmosphere in the billboard scene.
Even the dog is smiling!
|It was the early morning blitz that was to be the biggest rallying cry in the history of America. The attack by the Imperial Japanese Navy against the U.S. naval base at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, on the morning of December 7, 1941, came with no warning. It also prompted the swiftest call to arms ever seen.|
America's jobless recovery
The return of structural unemployment concerns
Recent labor markets developments, including mismatches in the skills of workers and jobs, extended unemployment benefits, and very high rates of long-term joblessness, may be impeding the return to "normal" unemployment rates of around 5%. An examination of alternative measures of labor market conditions suggests that the "normal" unemployment rate may have risen as much as 1.7 percentage points to about 6.7%, although much of this increase is likely to prove temporary. Even with such an increase, sizable labor market slack is expected to persist for years.
[T]he natural rate of unemployment has in fact risen over the past several years, by an amount ranging from 0.6 to 1.9 percentage points. This increase implies a current natural rate in the range of 5.6 to 6.9 percent, with our preferred estimate at 6.25 percent. After examining evidence regarding the effects of labor market mismatch, extended unemployment benefits, and productivity growth, we conclude that only a small fraction of the recent increase in the natural rate is likely to persist beyond a five-year forecast horizon.
Assessing the job market's winners and losers in 2011
The Real Reason Why Unemployment Will Remain High
Making It in America
The author will be answering questions about his article and American jobs on January 31 at 4 p.m. Click the link above for details.
America's brain drain: 6.3 MILLION U.S. citizens now live and work overseas (no wonder the economy's on its knees)
- Number of Americans aged 25-34 living abroad increased from 1% to 5.1% in two years
- 40% of Americans aged 18-24 express interest in working abroad, up 15% from 2009
- State Department: 6.3m Americans now work abroad
WANT TO WORK ABROAD? HERE'S WHERE TO START
- Wisconsin-based traditional farming school teaches 20 farmers every weekend from all over country
Extraordinary photos capture America's men and women mobilising the country for battle
THE AMERICAN DREAM
Nighthawk: Vivian Maier's pictures have been credited with having an Edward Hopper style as she captures a side of America not normally seen
Snapper: Vivian Maier, pictured above, had no formal training in photography but has produced a lifetime of work that has unearthed a hidden side of life in America
Now some 100,000 pictures have been unearthed by John Maloof a real estate agent who bought the negatives as part of a storage locker at a Chicago auction house.
He had hoped to find a picture of the city for a book he was writing, but when he saw the pictures he couldn't believe what he had found.
He told CBS: 'The box I bought was the biggest box they had of negatives. And it was loaded to the top.
'Her storage locker had delinquent payments. So what they do is they auction the stuff off.'
Howard Greenberg, a leading photography dealer told CBS: 'I don't think she ever made a penny from her photographs, but she certainly was no amateur.
'She never showed them to anyone. Nobody knew she was making these photographs. She did them by herself, for herself, for reasons we could only guess at.'
Mr Greenberg's New York gallery has now opened the first major exhibition of Maier's work giving the artist the fame she never had in life.
A female riverter at work on a bomber at the Consolidated Aircraft factory in Fort Worth
The riveting team working together to complete the cockpit shell of a C-47 heavy transport plane
Assembling switchboxes on the firewalls of B-25 bombers at North American Aviation's factory
A soldier from YB-17 bombardment squadron making sure everything is right at Langley Field, Virginia
Crane operator at Tennessee Valley Authority's Douglas Dam. This was taken in June 1942.
A mechanic works on a Wright Whirlwind motor in the Corpus Christi, Texas, Naval Air Base assembly and repairs shop. Doing their bit for the war effort: Engine installers at Douglas Aircraft factory in California from October 1942
A worker at the Heil and Co factory in Milwaukee on blackout lamps to be used on Air Force gasoline trailers
North American Aviation drill operator in the control surface department assembling horizontal stabiliser section of an airplane
Between 1939 and 1944 the OWI took approximately 1,600 colour pictures depicting military preparedness, factory operations and women in the work force.
The images come from a variety of facilities during the war, including Douglas Aircraft Company in Long Beach, California, the Consolidated Aircraft factory in Fort Worth, Texas, and the North American Aviation factory in Inglewood, California.
Palmer's original images are colour transparencies ranging in size from 35 mm to 4x5 inches. He used a crude lighting system which focused on the subject within his environment, sometimes creating an extreme contrast in his images.
Army tank driver at Fort Knox in Kentucky, from June 1942
An Army test pilot assigned to Douglas Aircraft Company from October 1942
Some of the shots also show life outside of work, this one is of Shulman's Market grocery store in Washington
Jack Whinery from Pie Town in New Mexico, with his wife and the youngest of his five children in their dirtfloor home.
Conical bras, minuscule waists - and VERY short skirts: Sexy secretaries from the Thirties to the Swinging Sixties reveal how office girls looked in decades past (obligitory cigarette and all)
The changing shape of women: With conical bra and cinched in waist, this Sixties secretary shows just how much women's silhouettes - and fashions - have changed over the decades
Perks of the job: It's not hard to see where Mad Men costume designer Janie Bryant looked to source inspiration for Joan Holloway's costumes on the show
Appropriate attire? A teenage girl gets to grips with the office equipment in a tiny skirt and white go-go boots
Can I help? Telephones became increasingly commonplace during the Twenties and Thirties - in 1929 President Herbert Hoover had a phone installed at his desk in the White House
Health hazard: For decades smoking at work was commonplace, however in 1998 a number of countries enforced a ban preventing the practice
While the men photographed appear to be in their mid-to late thirties all of the women are considerably younger, as it was traditional for women to quit their jobs once married and with children.
Washington correspondent Eleanor Clift who worked as a Newsweek secretary during the Sixties told The Daily Beast: 'Women weren’t supposed to be openly ambitious in the ’60s.
'When I started at Newsweek As a secretary, I was thrilled to be where what I typed was interesting. I was the daughter of immigrants, my father had a deli, and my mother made the potato salad and rice pudding.'
The thigh's the limit! A blonde-haired woman stands by a filing cabinet in a scarlet mini dress
Under pressure: One woman calmly listens to a caller while another lets the stress get to her
On call: A secretary exposes some thigh as she mans the phone at an advertising agency in Soho, London
One of the archive shots shows a young lady perched on the edge of her desk taking a telephone call with a short dress revealing ample thigh, while another woman sits typing unaware that her stockings are on display.
Other images capture boss / secretary relationships - often a source of office gossip. In the Mad Men series Joan had a brief affair with her boss Roger Sterling while in the fifth season advertising executive Don Draper married his secretary, Megan.
Ms Clift admits she was also guilty of indulging in an office romance, stating that at the time she 'was living with a television director I had met at a previous job working as a secretary at ad agency Albert Frank-Guenther Law.'
One archive shot shows a 51-year-old Albert Einstein in his attic flat in Berlin, siting a good distance away from his conservatively dressed secretary while dictating a scientific paper.
To close for comfort? A businessman gives his secretary a lingering glance before leaving the office
Ready for action: Women did all sorts of jobs during the 1960s, but some of the most common jobs were teacher, nurse, secretary, typist, bookkeeper and shop assistant
Well seated: Two female assistants get comfortable on some retro-style furniture
Gadget proud: A secretary admires a new three-inch-high, eight-pound portable typewriter (left) while a secretary works an early version of the fax machine (right)
Role model: Actress Barbara Hale - best known for her role as legal secretary Della Street on the Perry Mason television series - pictured at her desk
However another shows a male executive admiring his scantily clad female assistant as he decides to relocate outdoors as a heatwave hits.
According to a study released earlier this year more job descriptions are using the word 'secretary' thanks to Mad Men reigniting the appeal of the role.
Ray Weikal, communications specialist at the International Association of Administrative Professionals (IAAP), which conducted the research, noted that for years the term used to describe an administrative assistant had been on the decline, due in part to the feminist movement.
He told the Business Insider: 'The title secretary started to go out of fashion after World War II.
'The association was formed as a way of professionalizing secretarial work.
Relocation: A boss and his secretary move their office outside for the day
Technological aids: Telephones became increasingly easier to operate over the years and inventions such as the Beoton telephone amplifier allowed office workers to type and make a phone call at the same time
Conservative look: Two women opt for more modest attire with button up collars
Inspirational boss: A picture from 1930 shows Albert Einstein dictating a scientific paper to his conservatively dressed secretary in his attic flat in Berlin
'The idea was to encourage professional development. After World War II, there was a stigma attached to the title secretary, so many people preferred to be called administrative assistant.'
According to Weikal the shift continued with the rise of feminism and women's rights movements, adding: 'With the cultural change of the 1950s through the 1970s, women increasingly wanted to have titles that better reflected their status as fully professional members of their office team.'
But now the IAAP reports that in the past two years, the number of workers who have secretary in their job title has almost doubled.
Weikal said experts are deeming it the 'Mad Men' effect as there is no rational data to explain the trend.
In the spotlight: A woman wears a flesh-exposing ensemble as she sets to work at a typewriter
Hard at work: Three women cram into a tiny office space
The Rock: The construction of the 14 Rockefeller Center towers was the largest private building project undertaken in modern times
As well as the photographer, the names of the construction workers also remain a mystery. Corbis attempted to track them down 12 years ago but were not able to establish conclusive identities for any of them.
However, over the years family members have come forward to identify the men and it's been claimed that the majority of the workers are Irish immigrants.
The man sitting fourth from the right is allegedly Francis Michael Rafferty with his lifelong best friend, Stretch Donahue, sitting to his right. Recently arrived in the city, the Irish natives came to Manhattan seeking employment at a grim economic time. Indeed, the photo was taken while the city was in the depths of the Great Depression when one in four New Yorkers were unemployed. Nevertheless, huge-scale construction projects begun during the boom years of the 1920s were nearing completion.
It is one of the most iconic photographs of all time but as it celebrates its 80th anniversary it has emerged that ‘Lunch atop a Skyscraper’ may not have been as impromptu as previously thought.
Archivists say the shot showing 11 construction workers enjoying their break on a suspended beam, high above the streets of Manhattan, was in fact a publicity stunt.
Although the models were real workers, the moment was staged by the Rockefeller Center to promote their new skyscraper 80 years ago today.
The claim is supported by a second - and rarely seen - image from the same organised shoot which shows the crew in a different pose lying down on the girder.
Staged: The iconic photograph of workers enjoying their break whilst perched on a beam 69 floors up was, in fact, just a publicity stunt
Taken on September 20, 1932 it was intended to look like a natural break during the construction of the RCA Building (later renamed the GE Building in 1986), which forms part of the Rockefeller Center.
The image of the 11 workers perched on a beam 69 floors above Manhattan eating lunch, sharing banter and lighting cigarettes is one of the world’s most reproduced. ‘The image was a publicity effort by the Rockefeller Center. It seems pretty clear they were real workers, but the event was organised with a number of photographers.’ Ken Johnston, chief historian for Corbis Images, which owns the rights to the photo, told the Independent.
He added that it is Corbis Images’ biggest selling historical image and tops other iconic historical photographs in the Corbis catalogue, including those of Albert Einstein and Martin Luther King.
The original negative of the photograph is stored in a temperature-controlled facility under Pennsylvania’s Iron Mountain. Johnston described the world famous black and white photograph as 'a piece of American history.'
|'The other one': It is this image, of four construction workers take a nap on the same beam shot on the same day which, according to archives, prove it was all just a set-up|
The image first appeared in the New York Herald Tribune a few weeks after it was taken on October 2, 1932.
Although the photo it is commonly credited to photographer Charles C Ebbets, information which was uncovered by a private investigation firm in 2003, Corbis say that after it emerged that there were multiple photographers at the shoot, they are no longer certain Mr Ebbets took it. The iconic image has frequently been wrongly attibuted to Lewis Hine, who was famous for documenting the rise of the Empire State Building in 1931.
|Commentators have suggested that during the economic depression men were willing for to take on any work regardless of safety issues. Seemingly echoing this, one of the most striking points about the photograph is the mens' lack of safety harnesses despite the 840 feet drop beneath them.|
With safety issues in place, the photograph has been re-created multiple times with copycat snaps taken all over the world from a group of workers 800ft above the streets of London to a less risky cartoon version on U.S. show The Simpsons.
The 80-year-old photograph is also the subject of a new film titled Men At Lunch, which was shown at the Toronto Film Festival earlier this month and puts forward evidence that the some of workers hail from the small Irish town of Shanaglish.
When it began, the construction of the 14 Rockefeller Center towers was the largest private building project undertaken in modern times.
The building began in May 1930 and took nine years to complete.‘Lunch atop a Skyscraper’ was taken during the final few months of construction.
In the 60s and 70s a new complex was built with four new towers, one of which houses News Corporation and Fox News.
The building where ‘Lunch atop a Skyscraper’ was taken is the centrepiece of the Rockefeller Center complex.
The RCA, now renamed the GE Building after the General Electric acquisition, has 70 floors, including a spectacular observation deck on the roof.
It is home to the headquarters of television company NBC which produces shows such as Saturday Night live and is featured in popular American comedy show 30 Rock, named after the building’s address 30 Rockefeller Plaza.